Multiple studies have measured the effects of the single market on the EU economy. Quantifications of the benefits vary, but are overwhelmingly positive. A 2019 study suggested that EU citizens' per capita welfare gains from the single market amount to €840 annually. Also in 2019, the European Commission estimated that, mainly due to the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, EU GDP is 8-9% higher than if the single market did not exist.
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