In September 2018, the Article 7(1) TEU procedure was triggered. In this case, the European Parliament voted a resolution calling the Council to determine the existence of a clear risk of a serious breach of EU values in relation to Hungary. This resolution was preceded by numerous others adopted by the Parliament between March 2011 and May 2017 and it made reference to concerns related mainly to judicial independence, freedom of expression, corruption, rights of minorities, and the situation of migrants and refugees in Hungary. Under Article 2 TEU, the EU is founded on the shared values of democracy, the rule of law and respect for fundamental rights (DRF). Article 7 TEU establishes two mechanisms (preventive and sanctions) to enforce EU values in cases of systemic violations and to sanction Member States departing from them. See also the previous package on the rule of law in Hungary.